European Central Bank
The striking twin tower shapes the skyline of Frankfurt’s Ostend
The design of the Viennese architectural studio Coop Himmelb(l)au for the new premises of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt combines the horizontal structure of the landmarked Grossmarkthalle with a twisted double tower, which rises to 185 meters. United by an entrance building, these two elements form an ensemble of special architectural significance. Featuring bridges, pathways, and platforms, the glass atrium between the two highrises creates a vertical city. The semi-public and communicative functions are located in the former Grossmarkthalle. The exceptional atrium and visible steel support structure show that the ECB building belongs to an entirely new typology of skyscrapers.
The hyperboloid cut
From the beginning, it was an explicit request of the ECB to create a unique, iconic building as a symbol of the European Union. A distinctive and unique building can only be achieved by a completely different kind of Geometry.
The design concept of the ECB is to vertically divide a monolithic block through a hyperboloid cut, wedge it apart, twist it and fill the newly created intermediary space with a glass atrium. The result is a very complex geometry and a multifaceted building offering a completely different appearance from each angle: massive and powerful from the South-East, slender and dynamic from the West.
The principle of the “Vertical City”
The architectural concept of the ECB is to vertically divide a monolithic block through a hyperboloid cut, wedge it apart, twist it and fill the newly created intermediary space with several glass atriums. The connecting and transitioning platforms divide the atrium horizontally into three sections with heights from 45 to 60 meters. This is where all vertical entry points are joined – and just like public squares, they invite visitors to communicate. The planned “hanging gardens” ensure a pleasant room climate while elevators and stairs connect these places with the offices and communication areas of the Grossmarkthalle.
The Grossmarkthalle – the communicative forum
The existing landmarked Grossmarkthalle, a former wholesale market from the 1920s, is used as an “urban foyer”. The conference and visitor’s center, library and employee cafeteria are placed diagonally in the spacious interior of the hall as independent building structures (with a “house within a house” concept). A floating entrance building penetrates the hall structure from the outside. With its asymmetrical contours, slanted facades, and generous windows it marks the representative access to the ECB. The lobby, two-story press conference room, and a lecture room are located here. The so-called “loop” – a glass walkway between the highrise and the market hall – completes the ensemble.
The sustainable energy concept
Energy efficiency and sustainability were key factors in the competition. The energy concept includes the following measures: utilization of rain water, heat recovery, efficient insulation, sun protection and illumination as well as a natural ventilation for the offices. Some areas, such as the atrium and open zones of the Grossmarkthalle, are not equipped with an air conditioning system; instead, they serve as a buffer zone between the interior and exterior climates. The “shield hybrid facade” of the office towers consists of three layers and offers a direct and natural ventilation of the offices via vertical, room-high ventilation elements.
Urban construction and architecture
The ECB’s architecture was carefully attuned to its location in Frankfurt’s Ostend district. With its clear orientation towards the urban perspectives, the ensemble enters a dialogue with Frankfurt’s most important reference points: the Alte Oper, the Museum Embankment and the skyline of the financial district. The distinctive double tower can be seen from all of the important places in Frankfurt’s city center and from the Main river, creating an initial point for a second center in the East of Frankfurt.
“This corresponds to the principle of a polycentric city, which is much more dynamic than a monocentric city,” explains Wolf D. Prix, Design Principal, and CEO of Coop Himmelb(l)au. “Tension areas begin to emerge between the centers, in which new developments are being provoked.”
Hessian Culture Prize
Wolf D. Prix received the prestigious Hessian Culture Prize for the design of the new premises of the European Central Bank in November 2013. Since 1982, this award has been given annually for special accomplishments in the areas of art, science and cultural mediation. “With the new premises of the European Central Bank, Coop Himmelb(l)au is creating a new, modern landmark for Frankfurt,” the eleven-member Board of Trustees said in a statement about the award.
Contributed by Coop Himmelb(l)au
Photos © European Central Bank/Robert Metsch, Paul Raftery
Client: European Central Bank (ECB), Frankfurt/M., Germany
Planning: COOP HIMMELB(L)AU Wolf D. Prix & Partner ZT GmbH
Design Principal: Wolf D. Prix
Project Partner: Frank Stepper
Design Architect: Karin Miesenberger
Project Architects: Hartmut Hank, Christian Halm, Thomas Schwed, Michael Beckert (TPL), Johannes Behrens (TPL), Günther Weber, Jürgen Tiltmann (TPL), Oliver Cassik (TPL), Philipp Munz (TPL)
Architectural Management: Christian Maeder, Sascha Hempel, Markus Tritthart, Damian Witt
Project Team: Magdalena Baczkowska, Markus Baumann, Michael Beckert, Johannes Behrens, Hilde Benda, Marcelo Bernardi, Nico Boyer, Jan Brosch, Timo Carl, Anna Rita Cedroni, Jasmin Dieterle, Sabrina Dlugosch, Jan Ruben Fischer, Brigitte Fuchs, Sergio Gonzales, Gesine Görlich, Martin Gruber, Guthu Hallstein, Sebastian Haffner, Simone Hainz, Sascha Hempel, Rob Henderson, Emanuele Iacono, Martin Jelinek, Rashmi Krishna Jois, Ivana Jug, Frank Pascal Kaul, Matt Kirkham, Daniela Kröhnert, Bernward Krone, Christian Labud, Anke Lammert, Monika Lyzyczka, Steven M, Christian Maeder, Dimitra Mamou, Ariane Marx, Christoph Maurer, Matthias Niemeyer, Martin Oberascher, Ross Olson, Renate Ott, Gerhard Pfeiler, Ellen Pietrzyk, James Pike, Robert Pippan, Jakob Przybylo, Anna Ptaszynska, Stephanie Rathgeber, Carmen Renz, Salome Reves, Donna Riedel, Akvile Rimantaite, Pete Rose, Penelope Rüttimann, Stefan Rutzinger, Oliver Sachse, Kristina Schinegger, Benjamin Schmidt, Marita Schnepper, Thomas Siegl, Ebru Simsek-Lenk, Denise Sokolowski, Augustin Solorzano, Anja Sorger, Andrea Stöllenwerk, Ernst Stockinger, Crystal K.H Tang, Jürgen Tiltmann, Markus Tritthart, Josef Tröster, Günther Weber, Andreas Weissenbach, Clemens Werb, Judith Werkhäuser, Markus Wings, Eva Wolf, Barbara Zeleny, Thomas Zengger, Zeyneb Badur, Fabien Barthelemey, Oliver Cassik, Alejandro Corena, Alexander Daxböck, Mario Dignöss, Helmut Frötscher, Annegret Haider, Christian Halm, Gregor Kassl, Gernot Köfer, Alexander Laber, Anita Lischka, Rangel Malinov, Oliver Martinz, Philipp Munz, Barbara Roller, Nicole Rumpler, Wolfgang Ruthensteiner, Stefan Salchinger, Stefan Schadenböck, Thomas Schwed, Hannes Schwed, Eckart Schwerdtfeger, Sylvia Spernbauer, Christoph Treberspurg, Johannes Weigl
Model building: Ivana Jug, Filip Adamczak, Anna Balint, Mark Balzar, Oliver Berger, Robert Campell, Julian Chiellino, Ariane Dehghan, Jasmin Dieterle, Guido Ebbert, Heike Folie, Emilia Grzadzielewska, Benjamin Hahn, Laura Hannappel, Thomas Hindelang, Michael Hirschbichler, Ulrich Hoke, Rafal Jedlinski, Malte Kaiser, Reyhan Kargi, Vera Kleesattel, Stefan Kotzenmacher, Quirin Krumbholz, Daniel Kuhnert, Gretha Kuustra, Malgorzata Labecka, Jelena Lazic, Marta Leszczynska, Jörg Lonkwitz, Rita Lopez, Ariane Marx, Bruno Mock, Sarah Müller, Yusuke Nishimura, Seoug O, Ross Olson, Ulrich Peintner, Fabian Peitzmeier, Anna Ptaszynska, Jois Rashmi, Danuta Ratka, Salome Reeves, Benjamin Schmidt, Thomas Stock, Kadri Tamre, Philipp Trumpke, Andreas Wachter, Angelika Wiegand, Melanie Wohlrab
3D Vizualisation: Armin Hess (Wien)
Structural Engineering: B+G Ingenieure, Bollinger und Grohmann GmbH, Frankfurt/M., Germany
Competition: Phase 1: 2003, Phase 2: 2003-2004, Revision Phase: 2004
Optimization Phase: 2005
Start of Planning: 2005
Preliminary site works: 2008
Main construction works: 2010
Site area: 120,000 m²
Gross floor area: 185,000 m²
Floor space per office tower: 700 to 1200 m² (varying according to shape)
Height of high-rise: 185 m - North tower (45 floors incl. technical floors)
165 m - South tower (43 floors), 220 meters high incl. the communication mast
Individual sections within the atrium: 45 to 72 m height, 18 m width
Lifts in the high-rise: 2 goods lifts, 5 express lifts, 9 twin lifts, 2 special lifts
Number of depth of the foundation piles: 97 piles maximum 37 meters
Internal length and width of the hall: 220 m x 50 m = 11,000 m²
Height of the hall: 23.50 meters at the highest point of the barrel vaults
Internal length and width of the wing buildings: 65 m x 15 m = 975 m²
Height of the office wings: 32.50 meters – 8 floors
Heigth of the entrance building: maximum 27.50 meters